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Adult Neuroplasticity



- Zhou J, Reynaud A and Hess RF, (2017) Aerobic exercise effects on ocular dominance plasticity with a phase combination task in human adults, Neural Plasticity,: 4780876https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5357532/

- Connell C. J. W., Thompson B, Turuwhenua J., Hess R. F., Gant N. Caffeine increases the velocity of rapid eye movements in alert participants. Psycho-Pharmacology (submitted)

- Chadnova, E. Reynaud, A. Clavagnier, S. Hess, R. F. (2017) Short-term monocular occlusion produces changes in ocular dominance by a reciprocal modulation of interocular inhibition .Scientific Reports 7, Article number: 41747..https://www.nature.com/articles/srep41747

- Zhou, J. Reynaud, A. Jin Kim, J. Mullen, K. T. and Hess, R. F. Effect of chromaticity on short-term ocular dominance plasticity in the human adult. Proc Biol Scoc (in review).

- Spiegel, D, Baldwin, A and Hess, RF Ocular dominance plasticity; inhibitory interactions and contrast equivalence. Scientific Reports 2017 Jan 10;7:39913.https://www.nature.com/articles/srep39913

- Zhou J, Feng L, Lin H and Hess RF (2016), On the maintenance of normal ocular dominance and a possible mechanism underlying refractive adaptation, Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science Vol.57: 5181-5185.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27699413

- Spiegel, D. P. ; Reynaud, A.; Ruiz, T.;  Laguë-Beauvais, M.; Hess, R. F. ; Farivar, R.(2016) First- and second-order contrast sensitivity functions reveal disrupted visual processing following mild traumatic brain injury. Vision Research 122, 43–50.http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0042698916000547

- Ren, Z. Zhou, J. Yao, Z. Wang, Z. Yuan, N. Xu, G. Wang, X. Zhang, B. Hess, R. F. and Yifeng Zhou. (2016) Neuronal basis of perceptual learning in striate cortex. Scientific Reports 6: 24769.http://www.nature.com/articles/srep24769

- Hess, R.F. and Thompson, B. (2015). Amblyopia and the binocular approach to its therapy. Vision Research. 114:4-16. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25906685

- Li, J., Spiegel D.P., Hess, R.F., Chen, Z.D., Chan, L, Deng, D.M., Yu, M. and Thompson, B. (2015) Dichoptic training improves contrast sensitivity in adults with amblyopia. Vision Research, 114:161-172..http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25676883

- Feng, L., Zhou, J., Chen, L. and Hess, R.F. (2015). Sensory eye balance in surgically corrected intermittent exotropes with normal stereopsis. Scientific Reports, 5:13075, 1-8. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26287935

- Zhou, J., Baker, D.H., Simard, M., Saint-Amour, D. and Hess, R.F. (2015). Short-term monocular patching boosts the patched eye’s response in visual cortex. Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience. 33: 381-387.http://content.iospress.com/articles/restorative-neurology-and-neuroscience/rnn140472

- Zhou, J, Reynaud, A and Hess, R F. (2014) Real-time modulation of perceptual eye dominance in humans. Proc Roy Soc B. 281(1795).http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25274364

- Hess, R. F., Babu, R. J., Clavagnier, S., Black, J., Bobier, W., and Thompson, B. (2014) The IPOD Binocular Home-Based Treatment for Amblyopia in Adults: Efficacy and Compliance Clin. And Exp. Optom. 97 (5), 389-398http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25131694

- Spiegel DP, Li J, Hess RF, Byblow WD, Deng D, Yu M, Thompson B.(2013) Transcranial direct current stimulation enhances recovery of stereopsis in adults with amblyopia. Neurotherapeutics. Oct;10(4)http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23857313

- Spiegel, D.P., Byblow, W.D., Hess, R. F. & Thompson, B.(2013) Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Transiently Improves Contrast Sensitivity and Normalizes Visual Cortex Activation in Individuals With Amblyopia. Neurorehabilitation & Neural Repair. 2013 Oct;27(8):760-9, http://nnr.sagepub.com/content/early/2013/06/17/1545968313491006.full

- Li, J., Thompson, B., Deng, D., Chan, L. Y. L., Yu, M. & Hess, R. F. (2013) Dichoptic training enables the adult amblyopic brain to learn. Current Biology. 23(8), R308-9, http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960982213000948

- Zhou, J., Thompson, B. and Hess, R. F. (2013). A new form of rapid binocular plasticity in adult with amblyopia. Scientific Reports 3, 2638. http://www.nature.com/srep/2013/130912/srep02638/full/srep02638.html

- Zhou, J., S. Clavagnier and R. F. Hess. Short-term monocular deprivation strengthens the patched eye's contribution to binocular combination. Journal of Vision. 13(5), 12, 11-10. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23599416

- Clavagnier, S., Thompson, B. and Hess, R. F. Long lasting effects of daily theta burst rTMS sessions in the human amblyopic cortex. Brain Stimulation. 2013 Apr 28. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23664756

- Hess, R. F. and Thompson, B. New insights into amblyopia: binocular therapy and non-invasive brain stimulation. JAAPOS. 2013 Feb;17(1):89-93 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23352385

- Black, J. M., Hess, R. F., Cooperstock, J. R., To, L. & Thompson, B. The measurement and treatment of suppression in amblyopia. J. Vis. Exp., 70, e3927, doi:10.3791/3927, 2012. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23271400

- Zhou, J., Zhang, Y., Dai, Y., Zhao, H., Li, R., Hou, F., Liang, B., Hess, R. F. and Zhou, Y. The eye limits the brain's learning potential. Nature Scientific Reports, 364, 1-6. http://www.nature.com/srep/2012/120413/srep00364/full/srep00364.html

- Hess R. F., Thompson, B., Black, J., Maehara, G., Zhang, P., Bobier, W., To, L. and Cooperstock, G. An ipod treatment for amblyopia: an updated binocular approach. Optometry, 83(2), 88-94. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23231369

- Hess, R. F., Mansouri, B. and Thompson, B. Restoration of binocular vision in amblyopia. Strabismus, 19(3), 2110-118. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21870914

- Long, T., Thompson, B., Blum, J., Hess, R. F. and Cooperstock, J. A game platform for treatment of amblyopia. IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering, 19(30), 280-289. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21335317

- Thompson, B., Mansouri, B., Koski, L. & Hess, R. F. From motor cortex to visual cortex: the application of non-invasive brain stimulation to amblyopia. Psychobiology, 2010. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/dev.20509/abstract

- Hess, R. F., Mansouri, B. & Thompson, B. A binocular approach to treating amblyopia: antisuppression therapy. Optometry & Vision Science, 87(9), 697-704, 2010. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20622704

- Hess, R. F., Mansouri, B. & Thompson, B. A new binocular approach to the treatment of amblyopia in adults well beyond the critical period of visual development. Restorative Neurology & Neuroscience, 28(6), 793-802, 2010. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21209494

- Thompson, B., Mansouri, B., Koski, L. and Hess, R. F. Brain plasticity in the adult: restoration of function in amblyopia using rTMS. Current Biology, 18, 1067-1071, 2008. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18635353

- Mansouri, B., Thompson, B. and Hess, R. F. Measurement of suprathreshold binocular interactions in amblyopia. Vision Research, 48(28), 2775-2784, 2008. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0042698908004392




Amblyopia: clinical and treatment


- Feng L, Lin H, Chen Y, Wang J, Wang Y, Liao R, Zhou J and Hess RF,  (2017)“The effect of Lasik surgery on myopic anisometropes' sensory eye dominance”, Scientific Reports, ,7:3629.https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-017-03553-8

- Chadnova, E., Reynaud, A., Clavagnier S., Hess, R. F. (in press) Latent binocular function in amblyopia. Vision Research

- Zhou J & Hess RF,(2016) Neutral-Density Filters Are Not a Patch on Occlusion, Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 57:4450-4451https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27557437

- Guo, C. X. Babu, R. J. Black, J. M. Bobier, W. R. Lam, C. S. Y. Dai, S. Gao, T. Y. Hess, R. F. Jenkins, M. Jiang, Y. Kowal, L. Parag, V. South, J. Staffieri, S. E. Walker, N. Wadham A. Thompson , B.(2016) Binocular treatment of amblyopia using videogames (BRAVO): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial. Trials 201617:504.https://trialsjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13063-016-1635-3

- Zhou J, Feng L, Lin H and Hess RF, “On the maintenance of normal ocular dominance and a possible mechanism underlying refractive adaptation”, Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science Vol.57: 5181-5185.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27699413

- Hess RF, Ding R, Clavagnier S, Liu C, Guo C, Viner C, Barrett BT, Radia K and Zhou J, (2016) "A Robust and Reliable Test to Measure Stereopsis in the Clinic", Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 57(3): 798-804.http://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2499291

- Baker, D. H., Simard, M., Saint-Amour, D. and Hess, R.F. (2015). Steady-state contrast response functions provide a sensitive and objective index of amblyopic deficits. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 56(2):1208-1216.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25634977

- Feng, L., Zhou, J., Chen, L. and Hess, R.F. (2015). Sensory eye balance in surgically corrected intermittent exotropes with normal stereopsis. Scientific Reports, 5:13075, 1-8. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26287935

- Hess, R.F. and Thompson, B. (2015). Amblyopia and the binocular approach to its therapy. Vision Research. 114:4-16. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25906685

- Li, J., Spiegel D.P., Hess, R.F., Chen, Z.D., Chan, L, Deng, D.M., Yu, M. and Thompson, B. (2015) Dichoptic training improves contrast sensitivity in adults with amblyopia. Vision Research, 114:161-172..http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25676883

- Hess, R. F., Babu, R. J., Clavagnier, S., Black, J., Bobier, W., and Thompson, B. The IPOD Binocular Home-Based Treatment for Amblyopia in Adults: Efficacy and Compliance Clin. And Exp. Optom. 97 (5), 389-398http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25131694

- Spiegel DP, Li J, Hess RF, Byblow WD, Deng D, Yu M, Thompson B.(2013) Transcranial direct current stimulation enhances recovery of stereopsis in adults with amblyopia. Neurotherapeutics. Oct;10(4)http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23857313

- Spiegel, D.P., Byblow, W.D., Hess, R. F. & Thompson, B.(2013) Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Transiently Improves Contrast Sensitivity and Normalizes Visual Cortex Activation in Individuals With Amblyopia. Neurorehabilitation & Neural Repair. EPub June 17, http://nnr.sagepub.com/content/early/2013/06/17/1545968313491006.full

- Li, J., Thompson, B., Deng, D., Chan, L. Y. L., Yu, M. & Hess, R. F. (2013) Dichoptic training enables the adult amblyopic brain to learn. Current Biology. 23(8), R308-9, http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960982213000948

- Hess, R. F. & Thompson, B. (2013) New insights into amblyopia: Binocular therapy and non-invasive brain stimulation. JAAPOS 17(1), 89-93. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23352385

- Babu, R. J., Clavagnier, S. R., Bobier, W., Thompson, B. & Hess. R. F. (2013) The regional extent of suppression:strabismics vs non-strabismics. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci Oct 9 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24030466

- Li, J., Hess, R. F., Chan, L.Y.L., Deng, D.,Yang, X., Chen, X., Yu, M., Thompson, B (2013) Quantitative measurement of interocular suppression in anisometropic amblyopia: A case-control study. Ophthalmology. 120(8), 1672-1680. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23622875

- Li, J, Chan, L, Thompson, B, Yu, M and Hess, R. F. (2013) How best to assess suppression in patients with high anisometropia. Optometry and Vision Science Optom Vis Sci. 90(2), pe47-52. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23292046

- Hess R. F., Thompson, B. Black, J. Maehara, G, Zhang, P Bobier, W. To L. and Cooperstock, G. (2012). An ipod treatment for amblyopia: an updated binocular approach. Optometry 83 (2) 88-94. http://www.researchgate.net/publication/233899905_An_iPod_treatment_of_amblyopia_An_updated_binocular_approach

- Black, J. M., Hess, R. F., Cooperstock, J. R., To, L., Thompson, B. (2012). The Measurement and Treatment of Suppression in Amblyopia. J. Vis. Exp. 14(70), e3927, doi:10.3791/3927 (2012). http://www.jove.com/video/3927/the-measurement-and-treatment-of-suppression-in-amblyopia

- Li, J., Thompson, B., Ding, Z., Chen, L.Y., Chen, X., Deng, G. & Hess, (2012) Does partial occlusion promote normal binocular function? Invest. Opthal.Vis. Sci. 53(11), 618-627. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22956613

- Long, T. Thompson, B., Blum, J. Hess, R. F. and Cooperstock, J. (2011) A game platform for treatment of amblyopia. IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering 19 (30), 280-289. http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?arnumber=05713843

- Thompson,  B, Alby, R, Hess, R. F. Stockdale, C-A and Pack C. (2011) Impaired spatial and binocular summation for motion discrimination in strabismic amblyopia. Vision Res. 25;51(6):577-84. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0042698911000411

- Li, X., Coyle, Maguire, L McGinnity, T.M. and Hess, R. F. (2011) Long timescale neuronal fMRI adaptation effects in human amblyopic cortex. Medical Image Analysis. PLOS1. 6(10), e26562. Epub 2011 Oct 31. http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0026562

- Black, J, Thompson, B, Marhara, G and Hess, R. F. (2011) A compact clinical instrument for quantifying suppression. Optom. Vis. Sci. 88(20), 334-343. http://journals.lww.com/optvissci/Fulltext/2011/02000/A_Compact_Clinical_Instrument_for_Quantifying.22.aspx

- Li, J Lam, C, Chen, L and Hess, R. F. (2011). The role of suppression in amblyopia. Invest. Ophthal. Vis Sci. http://www.iovs.org/content/early/2011/03/28/iovs.11-7233.abstract

- Hess, R. F., Thompson, B and Maehara, G. (2011). A compact clinical instrument for quantifying suppression. Optom Vis Sci. http://journals.lww.com/optvissci/pages/articleviewer.aspx?year=2011&issue=02000&article=00022&type=abstract

- Thompson, B., Mansouri, B., Koski, L. & Hess, R. F. (2010). From motor cortex to visual cortex: the application of non-invasive brain stimulation to amblyopia. Psychobiology. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/dev.20509/full

- Hess, R.F., Mansouri, B. & Thompson, B. (2010a). A binocular approach to treating amblyopia: Antisuppression therapy. Optometry & Vision Science, 87(9), 697-704. http://journals.lww.com/optvissci/Abstract/2010/09000/A_Binocular_Approach_to_Treating_Amblyopia_.11.aspx

- Hess, R.F., Mansouri, B. & Thompson, B. (2010b). A new binocular approach to the treatment of amblyopia in adults well beyond the critical period of visual development. Restorative Neurology & Neuroscience 28(6), 793-802. images/Hessetal2010.pdf

- Li, J, Lam, C.S., Yu, M., Hess, R.F., Chan, L.Y., Maehara G., Woo, G.C. & Thompson, B. (2010). Quantifying sensory eye dominance in the normal visual system: a new technique and insights into variation across traditional tests. Invest. Ophthalmology and Visual Sci, doi:10.1167/iovs.10-5549. http://www.iovs.org/content/51/12/6875.full?sid=61527267-a7c8-4b95-895d-29a42616d71d

- Mansouri, B., Thompson, B. and Hess, R.F. (2008). Measurement of suprathreshold binocular interactions in amblyopia. Vision Research, 48, (28), 2775-2784. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0042698908004392

- Thompson, B., Mansouri, B. Koski, L. and Hess, R.F. (2008). Brain plasticity in the adult: restoration of function in amblyopia using rTMS. Current Biology, 18, 1067-1071. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960982208008087




Amblyopia: psychophysics



- Cadet, M, Superstein, R, Koenekoop, R, Hess R. F.Mouloua, T. A. Different age of onset of strabismus and visual function in genetically identical twins Canadian J Ophthalmology (submitted)

- Reynaud, A. and Hess, R. F. Is suppression just normal dichoptic masking?: suprathreshold considerations. IOVS 57: 5107-5115https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27699409

- Spiegel, D. P. Baldwin, A. S. & Hess, R. F. (in review). The relationship between fusion, suppression and diplopia in normal and amblyopic vision. Vision Research (in press)

- Zhou J, Liu R, Feng L, Zhou Y and Hess RF (2016) Deficient binocular combination of second-order stimuli in amblyopia, Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 57:1635–1642.http://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2512842

- Clavagnier, S. Dumoulin, S. O. and Hess, R F (2015) is the cortical deficit in Amblyopia  due to a reduced cortical magnification, Loss of neural resolution, or neural disorganization? J Neurosci Nov 4;35(44):14740-55. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1101-15.2015http://www.jneurosci.org/content/35/44/14740.short

- Gao Y., Reynaud A., Tang Y., Feng L., Zhou Y., and Hess RF. (2015) The amblyopic deficit for 2nd order processing: Generality and Laterality. Vision Research. 114:111-21. doi: 10.1016/j.visres.2014.10.020http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25448711

- Baker, D. H., Simard, M., Saint-Amour, D. and Hess, R.F. (2015). Steady-state contrast response functions provide a sensitive and objective index of amblyopic deficits. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 56(2):1208-1216.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25634977

- Raveendran RN., Babu RJ., Hess RF., and Bobier WR (2014). Transient improvements in fixational stability in strabismic amblyopes‬ following bifoveal fixation and reduced interocular suppression. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics, 34 (2), 214-225http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24495165

- Hess RF., Thompson B., and Baker DH. (2014) Binocular vision in amblyopia: structure, suppression and plasticity. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics, 34 (2), 146-162http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24588532

- Chen Z., Li J., Thompson B., Deng D., Yuan J., Chan L., Hess RF. and Yu M. (2014) The effect of Bangerter filters on binocular function in observers with amblyopia. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 56(1): 139-149http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25352120

- Zhou, J, McNeal, S, Babu, R. J., Baker, D, Bobier, W, and Hess, R. F. Time course of dichoptic masking in normals and suppression in amblyopes. IOVS Apr 17;55(7):4098-104. doi: 10.1167/iovs.14-13969http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24744203

- Zhou, J., Thompson, B. and Hess, R. F. (2013). A new form of rapid binocular plasticity in adult with amblyopia. Scientific Reports, (In Press) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24026421

- Zhou, J., Clavagnier, S. and Hess, R. F. (2013). Short-term monocular deprivation strengthens the patched eye's contribution to binocular combination. Journal of Vision 13(5), 12, 11-10. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23599416

- Brown B., Feigl B., Gole GA., Mullen K., and Hess RF (2013). Assessment of neuroretinal function in a group of functional amblyopes with documented LGN deficits. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics, 33(2): 138-149. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23311669

- Zhou, J., Jia, W., Huang, C-B. & Hess, R. F. (2013) The Effect of Unilateral Mean Luminance on Binocular Combination in normal and amblyopic vision. Scientific Reports 3, 1-7, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23774670

- Husk, J. S., & Hess, R. F. (2013) Global processing of orientation in amblyopia. Vision Research 82, 22-30. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0042698913000266

- Zhou, J.Huang, P-C, hess, R. F. (2013) Interocular suppression in amblyopia for global orientation processing. J. Vision. 13(5): 19, 1-14. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23608341

- Li. J., Thompson. B., Deng. D., Chan, L. YL., Yu. M., & Hess, R. F. (2013) Dichoptic training enables the adult amblyopic brain to learn. Current Biology 23(8), 308-309. http://www.cell.com/current-biology/abstract/S0960-9822%2813%2900094-8

- Husk, J Farivar, R and Hess, R. F. (2012). Amblyopic deficits in processing structure-from-motion. J Vis April 13, 2012 12(4): 4; doi:10.1167/12.4.4. http://www.journalofvision.org/content/10/15/41.abstract

- Huang, P-C, Jinrong Li Daming Deng, Minbin Yu Robert F. Hess (2012). Temporal synchrony deficits in amblyopia. Invest. Ophthal. & Vis Sci. Nov 8. pii: iovs.12-10835v1. doi: 10.1167/iovs.12-10835. http://www.iovs.org/content/early/2012/11/07/iovs.12-10835

- Huang, P-C., Baker, D.H. & Hess, R.F. (2012) Interocular suppression in normal and amblyopic vision: Spatio-temporal properties. J. Vision, Oct 31;12(11): 29; doi: 10.1167/12.11.29. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23115217

- Li, J Lam, C, Chen, L and Hess, R. F. (2011). The role of suppression in amblyopia. Invest. Ophthal. Vis Sci.52(7) 4167-4176. www.iovs.org/content/52/7/4169.full.pdf

- Goodman, L.K., Black, J.M., Phillips, G., Hess, R.F. & Thompson, B. (2011). Excitatory binocular interactions in two cases of alternating strabismus. J AAPOS. In Press. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1091853111003855

- Maehara, G. Thompson, B Mansouri, B and Hess, R F. (2011) The perceptual consequences of Suppression in amblyopia. Vision Res. 52(12), 9011-9017. http://www.iovs.org/content/52/12/9011.long

- Dallala, R., Wang, Y.-Z. & Hess R.F. (2010). The global shape detection deficit in strabismic amblyopia: Contribution of local orientation and position. Vision Res., 50, 1612-1617. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0042698910002567

- Hess, R.F., Mansouri, B., Thompson, B. & Gheorghiu, E. (2009). Latent stereopsis for motion-in-depth in strabismic amblyopia. Invest. Ophthalmol. & Vis. Sci. 50, 5006-5016. http://www.iovs.org/content/50/10/5006.full?sid=7a1bfb23-a619-42ca-9597-520c1fe442a5

- Mansouri, B., Hansen B.C. & Hess, Robert. F. (2009). Disrupted retinotopic maps in amblyopia. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50, 3218-3225. http://www.iovs.org/content/50/7/3218.full?sid=3250dd6f-3202-4116-b180-12be4fe33290

- Mansouri, B., Thompson, B. and Hess, R.F. (2008). Measurement of suprathreshold binocular interactions in amblyopia. Vision Research, 48, (28), 2775-2784. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0042698908004392

- Baker, D.H., Meese, T.S. & Hess, R.F. (2008). Contrast masking in strabismic amblyopia: attenuation, noise, interocular suppression and binocular summation. Vision Research, 48(15) 1625-1640. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0042698908002290

- Aaen-Stockdale, C.R. & Hess, R.F. (2008). The amblyopic deficit for global motion is spatial scale invariant. Visual Research, 48(19) 1965-1971. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0042698908003143

- Thompson, B., Mansouri, B., Koski, L. & Hess, RF. (2008). Brain Plasticity in the Adult: Modulation of Function in Amblyopia with rTMS restoration of function in amblyopia using rTMS. Current Biology, 18, 1067-1071. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960982208008087

- Thompson, B., Hansen, B.C., Hess, R.F. and Troje, N.F. (2008). Amblyopic perception of biological motion. J. Vision. 8(4)(22), 1-14. http://www.journalofvision.org/content/8/4/22.long

- Mansouri, B., Hess, R.F. & Allen, H.A. (2007). Orientation variance discrimination in amblyopia. J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 24, 2499-2504. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=josaa-24-9-2499

- Baker, D.H. , Meese, T.S., Mansouri, B. & Hess, R.F. (2007). Binocular summation of contrast remains intact in strabismic amblyopia. Invest. Ophthalmol. & Vis. Sci. 48, 5332-5338. http://www.iovs.org/content/48/11/5332.full?sid=65835d81-fdbe-467c-aa18-a962bec7d73d

- Aaen-Stockdale, C.R., Ledgeway, T. & Hess, R.F. (2007). Second-order optic flow deficits in amblyopia. Invest. Ophthal . & Vis. Sci., 48(12), 5532-5538. http://www.iovs.org/content/48/12/5532.full?sid=4f429e9c-e762-4ce2-b99f-a9e65263e703

- Simmers, A.J., Ledgeway, T., Mansouri, B., Hutchinson, C.V. & Hess, R.F. (2006). The extent of the dorsal extra-striate deficit in amblyopia. Vision Research 46, 2571-2580. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0042698906000095

- Mansouri, B. & Hess, R.F. (2006). The global processing deficit in amblyopia involves noise segregation. Vision Research 46, 4104-4117. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0042698906003130

- Hess, R. F., Mansouri, B. Dakin, S. C. & Allen, H. (2006). Integration of local motion is normal in amblyopia. J. Optical Soc. of America 23(5) 986-992. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=josaa-23-5-986

- Simmers, A.J., Ledgeway, T., Hess, R.F. & McGraw, P.V. (2005). The influences of visibility and anomalous integration processes on the perception of global spatial form versus motion in human amblyopia. Vision Res. 45, 449-460. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0042698904004389

- Mansouri, B., Allen, H.A. & Hess, R.F. (2005). Detection, discrimination and integration of second-order orientation information in strabismic and anisometropic amblyopia. Vision Research, 45(18), 2449-2460. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0042698905001288

- Gingras, G., Mitchell, D.E, & Hess, R.F. (2005). Haphazard neural connections underlie the visual deficits of cats with strabismic or deprivation amblyopia. European Journal of Neuroscience, 22, 119-124. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1460-9568.2005.04201.x/full

- Gingras, G., Mitchell, D.E, & Hess, R.F. (2005). The spatial localization deficit in visually deprived kittens. Vision Res. 45, 975-989. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0042698904005383

- Constantinescu, T., Schmidt, L., Watson, R. & Hess, R.F. (2005). A residual deficit for global motion processing after acuity recovery in deprivation amblyopia. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46, 3008-03012. http://www.iovs.org/content/46/8/3008.long

- Mansouri, B , Allen, H.A, Hess, R.F. & Dakin, S. (2004). Integration of orientation information in amblyopia. Vision Research. 44, 2955-2969. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0042698904003311

- Hess, R.F. & Malin, S. (2003). Threshold vision in amblyopia: orientation and phase. Invest. Ophthal . & Vis. Sci. 44(110, 4762-71. http://www.iovs.org/content/44/11/4762.long

- Simmers, A.J., Ledgeway, T., Hess, R.F. & McGraw, P.V. (2003). Deficits to global motion processing in human amblyopia. Vision Res. 43, 729-738. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0042698902006843

- Simmers, A., Hess, R.F. & Bex, P. (2003). Perceived blur in amblyopia. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 44,1395-1400. http://www.iovs.org/content/44/3/1395.long

- Hess, R.F., Pointer, J.S., Simmers, A. & Bex, P. (2003). Border distinctness in amblyopia. Vision Res. 43, 2255-2264. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0042698903004048

- Ellemberg, D., Hess, R.F., & Arsenault, A.S. (2002). Lateral interactions in amblyopia, Vision Res. 42, 2471-2478. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0042698902002274

- Hess, R.F. (2001). Amblyopia: Site Unseen. Australian Journal of Experimental Optometry. 84(6), 321-336. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1444-0938.2001.tb06604.x/abstract

- Hess, R. F., Dakin, S. C., Tewfik, M & Brown, B. (2001). Contour interaction in amblyopia" scale selection. Vision Res. 41, 2285-2296. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0042698901000992

- McColl, S.L., Ziegler, L. & Hess, R.F. (2000). Stereodeficient subjects demonstrate non-linear stereopsis. Vision Res. 40, 1167-1177. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0042698900000250




Normal vision: contours



- Hansen, B. C., May, K. A. and Hess, R. F. One “Shape” Fits All: The Orientation Bandwidth of Contour Integration. JoV 14(13):17 1-21 http://jov.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2213028

- Dumoulin SO., Hess RF., May KA., and Harvey BM (2014). Contour extracting networks in early extra-striate cortex. Journal of Vision, 14(5): 18, 1–14http://jov.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2121605

- Huang P-C, Husk, J and Hess, R. F. (2012). Orientation Coherence sensitivity J Vis. 2012 Jun 12;12(6):18. doi: 10.1167/12.6.18. http://www.journalofvision.org/content/12/6/18.long

- May, K. A., & Hess, R. F. (2008). Effects of element separation and carrier wavelength on detection of snakes and ladders: Implications for models of contour integration. Journal of Vision, 8(13):4, 1-23, http://journalofvision.org/8/13/4/, doi:10.1167/8.13.4. http://www.journalofvision.org/content/8/13/4.long

- Dumoulin S.O., Dakin S.C., & Hess R.F. (2008). Sparsely distributed contours dominate extra-striate response to complex scenes. NeuroImage, 42(2) 890-901. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2572731/?tool=pubmed

- May, K.A. & Hess, R.F. (2007a). Dynamics of snakes and ladders. J. Vision 7(12), 1-9. http://www.journalofvision.org/content/7/12/13.long

- May, K.A. & Hess. R.F. (2007b). Ladder contours are undetectable in the periphery: a crowding effect? J. Vision 7(13), 1-15. http://www.journalofvision.org/content/7/13/9.long

- Ledgeway, T. & Hess, R. F. (2006). The spatial frequency and orientation selectivity of mechanisms that extract motion-defined contours. Vision Research 46, 568-578. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S004269890500413X

- Hansen, B.C. & Hess, R.F. (2006). The role of spatial phase in texture segmentation and contour integration. J.Vision, 6, 594-615. http://www.journalofvision.org/content/6/5/5.long

- Ledgeway, T., Hess, r.F. & Geisler, W.S. (2005). Grouping local orientation and direction signals to extract spatial contours: Empirical tests of “assocation field” models of contour integration. Vision Research, 45(19), 2511-2522. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0042698905002051

- Hess, R.F & Hayes, A. (2003). Contour Integration and cortical processing. J. Physiol. (Paris) 97, 105-119. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0928425703000561

- Hess, R.F. & Ledgeway, T. (2003). The detection of direction-defined and speed-defined spatial contours: one mechanism or two? Vision Res. 43, 597-606 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0042698902006508

- Ledgeway, T. & Hess, R.F. (2002). Rules for combining the outputs of local motion detectors to define simple contours. Vision Res. 42(5), 653-659. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0042698901002474

- Hess, R.F., Beaudot, W.H. and Mullen, K.T. (2001). Dynamics of contour integration. Vision Res. 41, 1023-1037. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0042698901000207

- Hess, R.F., Ledgeway, T. & Dakin, S.C. (2000). Improverished 2nd order input to global linking in human vision. Vision Res. 40, 3309-3318. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0042698900001838

- Field, D.J., Hayes, A. and Hess, R.F. (2000). The role of polarity and symmetry in the perceptual grouping of contour fragments. Spatial Vision 13, 51-66. http://redwood.psych.cornell.edu/papers/field-hayes-hess-2000.pdf





Imaging - amblyopia



- Clavagnier, S. Dumoulin, S. O. and Hess, R F (2015) is the cortical deficit in Amblyopia  due to a reduced cortical magnification, Loss of neural resolution, or neural disorganization? J Neurosci Nov 4;35(44):14740-55. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1101-15.2015http://www.jneurosci.org/content/35/44/14740.short

- Thompson B., Villeneuve M., Casanova C., & Hess R. F. (2012). Abnormal processing of pattern motion by extra striate cortex in amblyopia; evidence from fMRI. NeuroImage 2012 Apr 2;60(2):1307-15. Epub 2012. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S105381191200095X

- Li, X., Mullen, K.T., Thompson, B. & Hess, R.F. (2011). Effective connectivity anomalies in human amblyopia. NeuroImage. 54, 505-516, 2011.http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1053811910010268

- Li, X., Mullen, K.T., Thompson, B. & Hess, R.F. (2011). Effective connectivity anomalies in human amblyopia. NeuroImage. 54, 505-516, 2011. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1053811910010268

- Hess, R.F., Li, X-F., Lu, G., Thompson, B., & Hansen, B.C. (2010). The contrast dependence of the cortical fMRI deficit in amblyopia; a selective loss at higher contrasts. Human brain mapping, 31(8), 1233-1248 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/hbm.20931/full

- Hess, R.F., Thompson, B., Gole, G.A. & Mullen, K.T. (2010). The amblyopic deficit and its relationship to geniculo-cortical processing streams. J. Neurophysiology, 104, 475-483. http://jn.physiology.org/content/104/1/475.full

- Barnes, G.R., Li, Xingfeng, Thompson, B, Singh, K.D., Dumoulin, SO. & Hess, R.F (2010). Decreased grey matter concentration in the lateral geniculate nuclei in human amblyopes. Invest. Opthal.Vis. Sci. 51, 1432-1438. http://www.iovs.org/content/51/3/1432.long

- Hess, R.F. , Li, Xingfeng, Mansouri, B., Thompson, B. & Hansen, B..C. (2009). Selectivity as well as sensitivity loss characterizes the cortical spatial frequency deficit in amblyopia.   Human Brain Mapping 30 Issue 12, 4054 – 4069 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/hbm.20829/full

- Hess, R.F., Li, X., Lu, G., Thompson, B., & Hansen, B.C. (2009). The contrast dependence of the cortical fMRI deficit in amblyopia; a selective loss at higher contrasts. Human brain mapping, In Press. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/hbm.20931/full

- Hess, R. F., Thompson, B Gole, G and Mullen, K. T. (2009). Deficient responses from the lateral geniculate nucleus in humans with amblyopia. European J. Neuroscience, 29(5) 1064-1070. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2695153/?tool=pubmed

- Li, X.-F., Dumoulin, S.O., Mansouri, B., & Hess, R.F. (2007). Cortical deficits in human amblyopia: their regional distribution and their relationship to the contrast detection deficit. Invest. Ophthalmol. & Vis. Sci. 48, 1575-1591. http://www.iovs.org/content/48/4/1575.long

- Li, X. -F., Dumoulin, S.O., Mansouri, B., & Hess, R.F. (2007). The fidelity of the cortical retinotopic map in human amblyopia.. European Journal of Neuroscience 25, 1265-1277. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1460-9568.2007.05356.x/full

- Barnes, G.R., Hess, R.F., Dumoulin, S.O., Achtman, R.L. and Pike, G.B (2001). the cortical deficit in humans with strabismic amblyopia. J. Physiol. 533, 281-297. http://jp.physoc.org/content/533/1/281.full?sid=f9e64820-a313-4d60-851e-05da0beeb850



Imaging - normal vision


- Chang, D.H.F., Hess, R.F. & Mullen, K.T. (2016) Color responses and their adaptation in human superior colliculus and lateral geniculate nucleus. NeuroImage, 138: 211–220https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27150230

- Mullen, K. T., Chang, D. H., Hess, R. F.(2015) The selectivity of responses to red-green colour and achromatic contrast in the human visual cortex: an fMRI adaptation study. Eur J Neurosci. 2015 Dec;42(11):2923-33.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26414774

- Dumoulin, S., Hess, R. F., May, K., Harvey, B., Rokers, B., and Barendregt, M. Contour extracting networks in early extra-striate cortex JoV May 30;14(5):18. doi: 10.1167/14.5.18http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24879865

- Mullen, K. T. Thompson, B. and Hess, R. F. Effect of temporal frequency on the responses of the human LGN and visual cortex to chromatic and achromatic stimuli measured with high-field fMRI. J. Vision.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2777261/

- Farivar, R., Thompson, B., Mansouri, B. & Hess, R.F. Interocular suppression in strabismic amblyopia results in an attenuated and delayed hemodynamic response function in early visual cortex. J. Vision 11(14):16, 1-12. http://www.journalofvision.org/content/11/14/16.full?sid=866d8c2f-dd48-471f-9323-39f439abe382

- Li, Xingfeng, Marrelec, G., Hess, R.F., & Benali, H. (2010). A nonlinear identification method to study effective connectivity in functional MRI. Medical Image Analysis, 14, 30-38. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1361841509000875

- Mullen, K. T. Dumoulin, S. and Hess, R. F. (2009). Color responses of the human LGN: selective amplification of S-cone signals between the LGN and primary visual cortex measured with high-field fMRI. J Neuroscience, 2008, vol. 28,  (9)1911-1923. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2777261/?tool=pubmed

- Dumoulin S.O., Dakin S.C., & Hess R.F. (2008). Sparsely distributed contours dominate extra-striate response to complex scenes. NeuroImage, 42(2) 890-901. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2572731/?tool=pubmed

- Mullen, K. T. Thompson, B. and Hess, R. F. (2008). Effect of temporal frequency on the responses of the human LGN and visual cortex to chromatic and achromatic stimuli measured with high-field fMRI. J. Vision. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2777261/?tool=pubmed

- Mullen, K.T., Dumoulin, S.O., McMahon, K.L., de Zubicarary, G.I. & Hess, R.F. (2007). R.F. Selectivity of human retinotopic visual cortex to S-cone-opponent, L/M-cone-opponent and achromatic stimulation. European J. of Neuroscience, 25, 491-502. http://white.stanford.edu/~dumoulin/PDFs/Mullen-EJN-2007.pdf

- Dumoulin, S.O. & Hess, R.F. (2007). Cortical specialization for concentric shape processing. Vision Research, 47, 1608-1613. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0042698907000429

- Dumoulin, S.O, & Hess, RF (2006). Modulation of V1 activity by shape: image-statistics or shape-based perception? J Neurophysiol. 95(6): 3654-3664. http://jn.physiology.org/content/95/6/3654.long

- Dumoulin, S.O., Baker, Jr., C.L., Hess, R.F. & Evans, A.C. (2003) Cortical specialization for processing first-and second-order motion. Cerebral Cortex. 13(12), 1327-1385. http://cercor.oxfordjournals.org/content/13/12/1375.long

- Dumoulin, S.O., Hoge, R.D., Baker Jr., Curtis L., Hess, R.F., Achtman, I. & Evans, A.C. (2003). Automatic volumetric segmentation of human visual retinotopic cortex. NeuroImage, 18, 576-587. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1053811902000587

- Dakin, S.C., Hess, R.F., Ledgeway, T. and Achtman, R.L. (2002). What causes non-monotonic tuning of fMRI response to noisy images? Current Biology, 12, R476-477. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960982202009600





Normal vision: motion



- Maehara,G. Georgeson, M and Hess, RF. Direction discrimination thresholds in binocular, monocular, and dichoptic viewing: motion opponency and contrast gain control JoV (in press) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0042698912001617

- Meso, A and Hess, R. F. (2012). Identification and detection of visual motion gradient modulation: evidence for multiple extra-striate filtering channels. Vision res. Vision Res. 2012 Jul 1;64:42-8. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0042698912001617

- Villeneuve, M. Y., Thompson, B., Hess, R.F., Casanova C (2012). Pattern-Motion Selective Responses in MT, MST and the Pulvinar of Humans. Eur J Neurosci. 2012 Jul 3. doi: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08205.x. [Epub ahead of print]) http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08205.x/abstract;jsessionid=FD32DC0485D072F7B04B58C0549318DF.d02t02

- Aaen-Stockdale, Ledgeway, T, McGraw, P and Hess, R. F. (2012) Interaction of first- and second-order signals in the extraction of global-motion and optic-flow. Vision Res. 8, 28-39. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0042698912002052

- Meso,A, Hess, R. F.(2011) A visual field dependent architecture for second order motion processing. Neuroscience Letters 503, 77-82. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0304394011011414

- Hess, R. F. Marhara, G. (2011). Does cognitive processing have access to brief temporal events. e-Perception. 2, 142-149. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3485778/

- Hess, R.F. & Zaharia, A.G. (2010). Global motion processing: invariance with mean luminance. J. Vision. http://www.journalofvision.org/content/10/13/22.long

- Aaen-Stockdale, C.R., Farivar, R. & Hess, R.F. (2010). Co-operative interactions between first- and second-order mechanisms in the processing of structure from motion. J. Vision 10(13): 6, 1-9. http://www.journalofvision.org/content/10/13/6.long

- Meso, A.I. & Hess, R.F. (2010). Visual motion gradient sensitivity shows scale invariant spatial frequency and speed tuning properties. Vision Res. 50, 1475-1485. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0042698910002105

- Thompson, B, Aaen-Stockdale, C, Koski, L and Hess, R.F.  (2009). A double dissociation between striate and extrastriate visual cortex for pattern motion perception revealed using rTMS. Human Brain Mapping, 30, 3115-3126. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/hbm.20736/full

- Aaen-Stockdale, C.R., Thompson, B., Huang, P.-C. & Hess, R.F. (2009). Low level mechanisms may contribute to paradoxical motion percepts. J. Vision, 9(5):9, 1-14, http://www.journalofvision.org/content/9/5/9.long

- Hess, R. F., Huang, P-C., & Maehara, G. (2009). Spatial distortions produced by purely dichoptic-based visual motion. Perception, 38(7), 1012-1018. http://www.perceptionweb.com/abstract.cgi?id=p6274

- Hess, R.F. & Aaen-Stockdale, C.R. (2008). Global motion processing: the effect of spatial scale and eccentricity. J. Vision 8(4):11, 1-11. http://www.journalofvision.org/content/8/4/11.long

- Aaen-Stockdale, C.R., Thompson, B., Hess, R.F. & Troje, N.F. (2008). Biological motion perception is cue-invariant. J. Vision 8(8)(6), 1-11. http://www.journalofvision.org/content/8/8/6.full

- Thompson, B., Hansen, B.C., Hess, R.F. & Troje, N.F. (2007). Peripheral vision: Good for biological motion, bad for signal noise segregation? J. Vision, 7(10)(12), 1-7. http://www.perceptionweb.com/abstract.cgi?id=p6274

- Hess, R.F., Hutchinson, C.V., Ledgeway, T. & Mansouri, B. (2007). Binocular influences on global motion processing in the human visual system. Vision Research, 47, 1682-1692. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0042698907000867

- Aaen-Stockdale, C., Ledgeway, T. & Hess, R.F. (2007). Second-order optic flow processing. Vision Research, 47(13), 1798-1808. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0042698907000612

- Ledgeway, T. & Hess, R. F. (2006). The spatial frequency and orientation selectivity of mechanisms that extract motion-defined contours. Vision Research 46, 568-578. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S004269890500413X

- Hess, R. F. Wang, Y-Z & Liu, C-H (2006). Accessibility of spatial channels for stereo and motion. Vision Research 46, 1318-1326. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0042698905005390

- Allen, H. A., Ledgeway, T. & Hess, R. F. (2004). Poor encoding of position by contrast-defined motion. Vision Research. 44, 1985-1999. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S004269890400166X

- Dumoulin, S.O., Baker, Jr., C.L., Hess, R.F. & Evans, A.C. (2003). Cortical specialization for processing first-and second-order motion. Cerebral Cortex. 13(12), 1327-1385. http://cercor.oxfordjournals.org/content/13/12/1375.long

- Hess, R.F. & Ledgeway, T. (2003). The detection of direction-defined and speed-defined spatial contours: one mchanism or two? Vision Res. 43, 597-606. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0042698902006508

- Scott-Samuel, N.E. & Hess, R.F. (2002). Orientation sensitivity in human visual motion processing. Vision Res. 42(5), 613-620. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0042698901002759

- Ledgeway, T. & Hess, R.F. (2002). Rules for combining the outputs of local motion detectors to define simple contours. Vision Res. 42(5), 653-659. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0042698901002474

- Ledgeway, T. & Hess, R.F. (2002). Failure of direction identification for briefly presented second-order motion stimuli: evidence for weak direction selectivity of the mechanisms encoding motion. Vision Res. 42, 1739-1758. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0042698902001062

- Hess, R.F. & Fredericksen, R.E. (2002). Temporal detection in human vision: dependence on eccentricity. Ophthal. physiol. Opt. 22, 92-102. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1046/j.1475-1313.2002.00011.x/full

- Scott-Samuel, N.E. & Hess, R.F. (2001). What does the Ternus display tell us about motion processing in human vision? Perception, 30, 1179-1188. http://www.perceptionweb.com/abstract.cgi?id=p3247

- Dumoulin, S.O., Baker, C.L. Jr., & Hess, R.F. (2001). A centrifugal bias for 2nd-order but not 1st-order motion. J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 18(9) 2179-2189. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=josaa-18-9-2179

- Ledgeway, T. & Hess, R.F. (2000). The properties of the motion-detecting mechanism mediating perceived direction in stochastic displays. Vision Res. 40, 3585-3597. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0042698900002029

- Hess, R.F. and Ziegler, L.R. (2000). What limits the contribution of second-order motion to the perception of surface shape? Vision Res. 40, 2125-2133. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0042698900000328





Normal vision: shape



- Baldwin, A. S. Schmidtmann, G.  Kingdom, F. A.A. & Hess, R. F. (2016). Rejecting probability summation for radial frequency patterns, not so Quick! Vision Research. 122, May 2016, Pages 124–134 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0042698916000444

- Husk, J. S., & Hess, R. F. (2013). Global processing of orientation in amblyopia. Vision Research, 82, 22-30. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23462430

- Husk, J. Huang, P-C and Hess R. F. (2012). Orientation coherence sensitivity J. of Vision 12 (6):18. doi: 10.1167/12.6.18. http://www.journalofvision.org/content/12/6/18.full.pdf+html

- Reynaud A. and Hess, R. F. (2012) The properties of spatial channels underlying the detection of orientation modulations. Exp. Brain res. ul;220(2):135-45. Epub 2012 May 24. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00221-012-3124-6

- Bell, J. Gheorghiu, E. Hess, R. F. and Kingdom, F. A. A. (2011). Global shape processing involves multiple integration stages. Vision Res. 51, 1760-1766. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S004269891100201X

- Meso, A and Hess, R. F. (2011). Orientation gradient detection exhibits variable coupling between 1st and 2nd stage filtering mechanisms. J. Opt. Soc. America A 28(8), 1731-1731. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21811335

- Dumoulin, S.O. & Hess, R.F. (2007). Cortical specialization for concentric shape processing. Vision Research, 47, 1608-1613. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0042698907000429

- Dumoulin, S.O., & Hess, R.F. (2006). Modulation of V1 activity by shape: image-statistics or shape-based perception? J Neurophysiol. 95(6): 3654-3664. http://jn.physiology.org/content/95/6/3654.long

- Wang, Y.-Z., & Hess R.F. (2005). Contributions of local orientation and position features to shape integration. Vision Res. 45, 1375-1383. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0042698905000131

- Achtman, R.L., Hess, R.F. & Wang, Y.-Z. (2003). Sensitivity for global shape detection. J. Vision, 3(10), 616-624. http://www.journalofvision.org/content/3/10/4.long

- Hess, R.F., Achtman, R.L. & Wang, Y.-Z. (2001). Detection of contrast-defined shape. J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 18(9) 2220-2227. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/josaa/abstract.cfm?URI=josaa-18-9-2220

- Achtman, R.L, Hess, R.F. & Wang, Y.-Z. (2000). Regional sensitivity for shape discrimination. Spatial Vision 13(4), 377-391. http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/vsp/spv/2000/00000013/00000004/art00003






Normal vision: spatial


- Kim YJ, Reynaud A, Hess RF, Mullen KT.  (2017) A Normative Data Set for the Clinical Assessment of Achromatic and Chromatic Contrast Sensitivity Using a qCSF Approach. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. Jul 1;58(9):3628-3636. doi: 10.1167/iovs.17-21645. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28728170

- Alex S. Baldwin, Daniel H. Baker & Robert F. Hess (2016). What do contrast threshold equivalent noise experiments actually measure? Noise vs. nonlinearity in different masking paradigms. PLoS One, 11(3):e0150942, pp. 1-26. http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0150942

- Baldwin, A. S. Schmidtmann, G.  Kingdom, F. A.A. & Hess, R. F. (2016). Rejecting probability summation for radial frequency patterns, not so Quick! Vision Research. 122, May 2016, Pages 124–134 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0042698916000444

- Baldwin, A.S., Husk, J.S., Edwards, L. and Hess, R.F. (2015). The efficiency of second order orientation coherence detection. Vision Research, 2015 Mar 4;109(Pt A):45-51 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25749675

- Baldwin AS., Husk JS., Meese TS., and Hess RF (2014). A two-stage model of orientation integration for Battenberg-modulated micropatterns. Journal of Vision, 14(1): 30, 1–21.http://jov.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2193947

- Zhou J., Georgeson M., and Hess RF (2014). Linear binocular combination of responses to contrast modulation: contrast-weighted summation in first- and second-order vision. Journal of Vision, 14(13): 24, 1–19 http://jov.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2213036

- Zhou J., Liu R., Zhou Y., and Hess RF (2014). Binocular combination of second-order stimuli. PLOS ONE, 9(1): e84632 http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0084632

- Reynaud, A., Tang, Y., Zhou, Y.and Hess, R. F. A normative framework for the study of extra-striate function. JoV 14(9):3, 1–16. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25096156

- Huang, P-C, Maehara, G, May, K and Hess, R. F. (2012) Pattern masking:the importance of remote spatial frequencies and their phase alignments. J Vis. 2012 Feb 16;12(2):14. doi:10.1167/12.2.14. http://www.journalofvision.org/content/12/2/14.long

- Hansen B. C. Hess R. F. (2012) On the effectiveness of noisemasks: Naturalistic vs. un-naturalistic image statistics. Vision Research Volume 60, 1 May 2012, Pages 101-113. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0042698912000909

- Zhou,, J, Zhang, Y, Dai, Y, Zhao, H, Li, R, Hou, F, Liang, B, Hess, R. H. and Zhou, Z. (2012). Super normal vision: the eye limits the brain’s potential. Nature Scientific Reports 364, 1-6. http://www.nature.com/srep/2012/120413/srep00364/full/srep00364.html

- Hansen, B.C., Thompson, B., Hess, R.F., & Ellemberg, D. (2010). Extracting the internal representation of faces from human brain activity: An analogue to reverse correlation. NeuroImage, 51, 373-390. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1053811910001898

- Maehara, G., Huang, P.-C. & Hess, R.F. (2010). The effects of flankers on contrast detection and discrimination in binocular, monocular, and dichoptic presentations. J. Vision, 10(4): 13; doi:10.1167/10.4.13. http://www.journalofvision.org/content/10/4/13.long

- Maehara, G., Huang, P-C., & Hess, R. F. (2009). Importance of phase alignment for interocular suppression. Vision Research, 49(14), 1838-47. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0042698909001989

- Huang, P-C and Hess, R. F. (2008). The dynamics of collinear facilitation: fast but sustained. Vision Research,  48, no27, pp. 2715-2722. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0042698908004446

- Hansen, B.C., Farivar, R., Thompson, B. & Hess, R.F. (2008). A critical band of phase alignment for discrimination but not recognition of human faces. Vision Res. 48(25) 2523-36. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0042698908004197

- Hess, R. F. Baker, D. H, May K. A and Wang, J. (2008). On the decline of 1st and 2nd order sensitivity with eccentricity. J. Vision 8(1), 1-12. http://www.journalofvision.org/content/8/1/19.long

- Huang, P.-C.,  & Hess, R. F. (2007). Collinear facilitation: Effect of additive and multiplicative external noise. Vision Research 47, 3108-3119. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0042698907003574

- Huang, P.-C., Mullen, K.T. & Hess, R. F. (2007). Collinear facilitation in color vision. J. Vision, 7(11), 1-14. http://www.journalofvision.org/content/7/11/6.long

- Hansen, B.C. & Hess, R.F. (2007). Structural sparseness and spatial phase alignment in natural scenes. J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 24, 1873-1885. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/josaa/abstract.cfm?URI=josaa-24-7-1873

- Ellemberg, D., Allen, H. & Hess, R.F. (2006). Second-order spatial frequency and orientation channels in human vision. Vision Research 46, 2798-2803. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0042698906000629

- Huang P C, Hess R F, Dakin S C, (2006a). Flank facilitation and contour integration: Different sites. Vision Research, 46, 3699-706. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0042698906002410

- Huang, P.-C., Kingdom, F. A. A. & Hess, R. F. (2006b). Only two phase mechanisms, ±cosine, in human vision. Vision Research, 46, 2069-2081. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0042698905007078

- Hess, R.F., Barnes, G., Dumoulin, S.O. & Dakin, S.C. (2003). How many positions can we perceptually encode, one or many? Vision Res. 43, 1575-1587. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0042698903001226

- Meese, T. S. & Hess, R. F. (2005). Interocular suppression is gated by interocular feature matching. Vision Res. 45, 9-15. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0042698904004018

- Meese, T.S., Hess, R.F. & Williams, C.B. (2005). Size matters, but not for everyone: individual differences for contrast discrimination. J. Vision, 5, 928-947. http://calendar.arvo.org/5/11/2/article.aspx

- Hansen, B.C. & Hess, R.F. (2006b). Discrimination of amplitude spectrum slope in the fovea and parafovea and the local amplitude distributions of natural scene imagery. J. Vision 6, 696-711. http://www.journalofvision.org/content/6/7/3.long

- Allen, H. A., Ledgeway, T. & Hess, R. F. (2004). Poor encoding of position by contrast-defined motion. Vision Research. 44, 1985-1999. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S004269890400166X

- Meese, T. S. & Hess, R. F. (2004). Low spatial frequencies are suppressively masked across spatial scale, orientation, field position, and eye of origin. Journal of Vision, 4, 843-859. http://www.journalofvision.org/content/4/10/2.long

- Ellemberg, D., Allen, H. A. & Hess, R. F. (2004). Lateral contrast interactions for first- and second-order stimuli. Vision Research. 44, 1787-1794. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0042698904000847

- Ehrt, O., Hess, R.F., Williams, C.B. & Sher, K. (2003). Foveal contrast thresholds exhibit spatial-frequency- and polarity-specific contour interactions. J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 20, 11-17. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/josaa/abstract.cfm?URI=josaa-20-1-11

- Allen, H.A, Hess, R.F., Mansouri, B. & Dakin, S. (2003). Integration of first and second-order orientation. . J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 20, 974-986. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/josaa/abstract.cfm?URI=josaa-20-6-974

- Meese, T.S., Hess, R.F. & Williams. C.B. (2001). Spatial coherence does not affect contrast discrimination for multiple Gabor stimuli. Perception, 30, 1411-1422. http://www.perceptionweb.com/abstract.cgi?id=p3159

- Hess, R.F., Williams, C.B. & Chaudhry, A. (2001). Contour interaction for an easily resolvable stimulus. J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 18, 2414-2418. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/josaa/abstract.cfm?URI=josaa-18-10-2414

- Hess, R.F., Dakin, S.C., Kapoor, N. (2000). The foveal 'crowding' effect: physics or physiology?, Vision Research 40 (4) pp. 365-370. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0042698999001935

- Hess, R.F., Dakin, S.C., Kapoor, N. & Tewfik, M. (2000). Contour interaction in fovea and periphery. . J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 17, 1516-1524. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/josaa/abstract.cfm?URI=josaa-17-9-1516





Normal vision: stereo vision



- Schmidtmann G, Ruiz T, Reynaud A, Spiegel DP, Laguë-Beauvais M, Hess RF, Farivar R.  (2017) Sensitivity to Binocular Disparity is Reduced by Mild Traumatic Brain Injury. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. May 1;58(5):2630-2635. doi: 10.1167/iovs.17-21845. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28494496

- Chadnova, Eva; Reynaud, Alexandre; Clavagnier, Simon; Baker, Daniel; Baillet, Sylvain; Hess, Robert. Interocular interaction of contrast and luminance signals in human cortex. Human Brain Mapping (submitted)

- Reynaud, A and Hess RF. Characterization of spatial frequency channels underlying disparity sensitivity by factor analysis of population data. Front Comput Neurosci.  Jul 11;11:63. doi: 10.3389/fncom.2017.00063. eCollection 2017.http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fncom.2017.00063/full

- Reynaud, A and Hess, RF Interocular contrast difference drives illusory 3D percept. Scientific Reports Jul 17;7(1):5587. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-06151-w. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-017-06151-w

- Hess RF, Ding R, Clavagnier S, Liu C, Guo C, Viner C, Barrett BT, Radia K and Zhou J, (2016) "A Robust and Reliable Test to Measure Stereopsis in the Clinic", Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 57(3): 798-804.http://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2499291

- Reynaud, A., Gao, Y. and Hess, R.F. (2015). A normative dataset on human global stereopsis using the quick Disparity Sensitivity Function (qDSF). Vision Research, 113(Pt A):97-103. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26028556

- Hess, R. F., To, L., Zhou, J., Wang, G. and Cooperstock, J. (2015). Stereo Vision: the haves and havenots. i-Perception. 6(3): 1-5. http://ipe.sagepub.com/content/6/3/2041669515593028.short

- Witz N., Zhou J., and Hess RF (2014). Similar mechanisms underlie the detection of horizontal and vertical disparity corrugations. PLOS ONE, 9(1): e84846 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24404193

- Reynaud, A., Zhou, J., and Hess, R. F.,(2013). Stereopsis and mean luminance, Journal of Vision, 13(11) 1-11. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24003175

- Witz, N. and Hess, R. F. (2013). Mechanisms underlying global stereopsis in fovea and periphery. Vision Res 87, 10-21. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23680486

- Pi-Chun Huang, Daniel H Baker & Robert F Hess (2012). Interocular suppression in normal and amblyopic vision: Spatio-temporal properties. J. of Vis. Oct 31;12(11). pii: 29. doi: 10.1167/12.11.29. http://www.journalofvision.org/content/12/11/29.long

- Li, J Thompson, B Ding, Z Chen, L. Y. Chen X, Deng, G. and Hess, R. F. (2012). Does partial occlusion promote normal binocular function? Invest. Ophth. & Vis. Sci 53(11), 618-627. http://www.iovs.org/content/53/11/6818.full

- Zhang, P., Bobier, W, Thompson, B, and Hess R. F. (2011). Binocular balance in normal vision and its modulation by mean luminance. Optometry and Vision Science 88(9), 1538-9235. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21642890

- Li, J, Lam, C.S., Yu, M., Hess, R.F., Chan, L.Y., Maehara G., Woo, G.C. & Thompson, B. (2010). Quantifying sensory eye dominance in the normal visual system: a new technique and insights into variation across traditional tests. Invest. Ophthalmology and Visual Sci, doi:10.1167/iovs.10-5549. http://www.iovs.org/content/51/12/6875.long

- Hess, R. F. and Wilcox, L. M. (2008). The transient nature of 2nd order stereopsis. Vision Research, 48, 1327-1334. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0042698908001016

- Hess, R.F., Hutchinson, C.V., Ledgeway, T. & Mansouri, B. (2007). Binocular influences on global motion processing in the human visual system. Vision Research, 47, 1682-1692 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0042698907000867

- Hess, R. F. Wang, Y-Z & Liu, C-H (2006). Accessibility of spatial channels for stereo and motion. Vision Research 46, 1318-1326. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0042698905005390

- Hess, R.F. & Wilcox, L.M. (2006). Stereo dynamics are not scale dependent. Vision Research, 46, 1911-1923. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S004269890500670X

- Hess, R.F., Chang, Hong Liu & Wang, Y.-Z. (2003). Differential binocular input and local stereopsis. Vision Res. 43, 2303-2313. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0042698903004061

- Hess, R.F., Liu, C.H. & Wang, Y.-Z. (2002). Luminance spatial scale and local stereo-sensitivity. Vision Res. 42(3), 331-342. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0042698901002851

- Kingdom, F.A.A., Ziegler, L.R. & Hess, R.F. (2001). Luminance spatial scale facilitates stereoscopic depth segmentation. J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 18(5) 993-1002. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/josaa/abstract.cfm?URI=josaa-18-5-993

- Ziegler, L.R., Hess, R.F. & Kingdom, F.A.A. (2000). Global factors that determine the maximum disparity for seeing cyclopean surface shape. Vision Res. 40, 493-502. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0042698999002060

- Ziegler, L.R., Kingdom, F.A.A. & Hess, R.F. (2000). Local luminance factors that determine the maximum disparity for seeing cyclopean surface shape. Vision Res. 40, http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0042698999002138





TMS



- Clavagnier, S, Thompson, B and Hess, R. F. (2013) Long lasting effects of daily theta burst rTMS sessions in the human amblyopic cortex. Brain Stimulation.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brs.2013.04.002

- Hess, R. F. and Thompson, B. (2013) New insights into amblyopia: Binocular therapy and non-invasive brain stimulation. JAAPOS Feb;17(1):89-93.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23352385

- Thompson, B., Mansouri, B., Koski, L. & Hess, R. F. (2010). From motor cortex to visual cortex: the application of non-invasive brain stimulation to amblyopia. Psychobiology. 8th Nov. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/dev.20509/full

- Thompson, B., Aaen-Stockdale, C.R., Koski, L. & Hess, R.F. (2009). A double dissociation between striate and extrastriate visual cortex for pattern motion perception revealed using rTMS. Human Brain Mapping. Oct;30(10):3115-26. DOI: 10.1002/hbm.20736 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/hbm.20736/full

- Thompson, B., Mansouri, B. Koski, L. and Hess, R.F. (2008). Brain plasticity in the adult: restoration of function in amblyopia using rTMS. Current Biology, 18, 1067-1071. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960982208008087